Wednesday, March 18, 2020
positive effects of gene altering essays The Positive Effects of Gene Altering Since the beginning of the human race, we have been looking. We have been looking for ways to make our lives healthier, more comfortable, and happier. In the beginning it was simple rocks, plants, and fires. As our technology advanced so did the comfort of our lives. The wheel, the cure to the plaque, and who can forget the remote control, were all tools that made it possible to improve the quality of life. What tool lies ahead in the future to promote our well being and happiness? Genetic engineering is that tool. Every living thing is made up of genes, and with the capability of altering these genes, the possibilities are endless. Everything from better quality produce to the prevention of cancer is a possibility with genetic engineering, and scientists are just now beginning to understand the complex gene patterns. If you can imagine a world free of diabetes, or male pattern baldness, and genetics has a major role. Genetic engineers might someday have the capabilities to remove these genes or even clone wanted genes, and in the end allowing us to live the healthy, comfortable, happier lives we seek. The numbers of positive outcomes from genetic engineering are inconceivable. Genetic engineering will lead to healthier, more comfortable, and better lives. Genetic engineering will improve every day produce and goods. For producers involved with living organisms as their products, genes play a major role in the quality of their products and amount of profit. If a farmer's cows are not as lean, or their corn is diseased, then the demand for their product is going to be less than the competition. That is where genetics comes in. It is possible, by altering certain genes, to create a leaner cow, or a disease resistant stalk of corn, and it is this fact that makes genetic engineering invaluable to the every day farmer. If their cattle is leaner, or their chickens are engineered to...
Sunday, March 1, 2020
Einstein Proposes His Theory of Relativity In 1905, Albert Einstein, a 26-year-old patent clerk, wrote a paper that revolutionized science. In his Special Theory of Relativity, Einstein explained that the speed of light was constant but that both space and time were relative to the position of the observer.Ã Who Was Albert Einstein? In 1905, Albert Einstein was not a famous scientist actually, he was quite the opposite. Einstein had been an unpopular student at the Polytechnic Institute, at least with the professors, because he wasnt shy about telling them he found their classes dull.Ã That was why when Einstein (barely) graduated in 1900, none of his professors would write him a recommendation letter. For two years, Einstein was an outcast of sorts and was very lucky to finally get a job in 1902 at the Swiss Patent Office in Bern. Although he worked six days a week, the new job allowed Einstein to get married and start his family. He also spent his limited free time working on his doctorate. Despite his future fame, Einstein seemed an undistinguished, 26-year-old, paper pusher in 1905. What most did not realize was that in between work and his family life (he had a young son), Einstein worked diligently on his scientific theories. These theories would soon change how we viewed our world. Einstein's Theory of Relativity In 1905, Einstein wrote five articles and had them published in the prestigious Annalen der Physik (Annals of Physics). In one of these papers, Ã¢â¬Å"Zur Elektrodynamik bewegter KoerperÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"On the Electrodynamics of Moving BodiesÃ¢â¬ ), Einstein detailed his Special Theory of Relativity. There were two main parts of his theory. First, Einstein discovered that the speed of light is constant. Secondly, Einstein determined that space and time are not absolutes; rather, they are relative to the position of the observer. For example, if a young boy were to roll a ball across the floor of a moving train, how fast was the ball moving? To the boy, it might look like the ball was moving at 1 mile per hour. However, to someone watching the train go by, the ball would appear to be moving the one mile per hour plus the speed of the train (40 miles per hour). To someone watching the event from space, the ball would be moving the one mile per hour the boy had noticed, plus the 40 miles an hour of the speed of the train, plus the speed of the Earth. E=mc2 In a follow-up paper also published in 1905, Ã¢â¬Å"Ist die Traegheit eines Koerpers von seinem Energieinhalt abhaengig?Ã¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"Does the Inertia of a Body Depend Upon Its Energy Content?Ã¢â¬ ), Einstein determined the relationship between mass and energy. Not only are they not independent entities, which had been a long-held belief, their relationship could be explained with the formula Emc2 (Eenergy, mmass, cspeed of light). Einsteins theories not only changed Newtons three laws and transformed physics, it became a foundation for astrophysics and the atomic bomb.
Friday, February 14, 2020
Equity and Trusts - Essay Example By the delivery of the gift, it can thus be understood that the gift can be considered as perfect when the donor of the gift actually surrenders the control or the right of the property. The intention of the donor making the gift is identified by the court with regard to certain circumstances. These circumstances include the relationship between the parties involved in the exchange of the gift, behaviour of the donor in the event of the exchange of the gift and the actual amount of the gift. The donor must also possess the legal capacity to deliver a gift to someone. Correspondingly, the final element is the acceptance of the gift wherein the person taking the gift must accept it at the time of the delivery. On completion of these three elements, the court would recognise such gift as a Ã¢â¬Ëperfect giftÃ¢â¬â¢. If in any case, the court is unable to identify the following three elements in the exchange of the gift then it is considered as the Ã¢â¬Ëimperfect giftÃ¢â¬â¢, which was also ruled in the Milroy v Lord case2. The aim of this study is to reveal the actual meaning of the perfect gift and the process through which the law has developed exception that the equity is unable to assist the volunteer to perfect an imperfect gift. The study has also tried to analyse the scope of further development in the particular area. Exceptions to the Maxim That Ã¢â¬ËEquity Will Not Assist a Volunteer to Perfect an Imperfect GiftÃ¢â¬â¢ In the Milroy v Lord case, the main issue intended to prove whether the transferor of the property was really the trustee so that the gift could be treated as a Ã¢â¬Ëperfect giftÃ¢â¬â¢ or an Ã¢â¬Ëimperfect giftÃ¢â¬â¢ if otherwise. The question that rose in the context of this case was that the property was actually registered in the name of Tom Medley or was this was only an interest of Elena in order to enjoy the full right of the property. The case was in possession of the property and the limitations that were levied on the equity of the gift. Elena, niece of Tom Medley was getting married very soon. After the marriage of Elena, Medley had given some dividends from the shares to Elena, which was immediately handed over to the trustee or the Lord. Lord had deposited these shares in the Bank of Louisiana. Soon after the death of Medley, various issues rose such as whether these shares in the bank came under the possession of Medley or were they are the part of LordÃ¢â¬â¢s property. Nevertheless, the real fact was that the shares were not once enumerated in the name of Lord rather it was always in the name of Medley3. At the end of the case, the court held a decision that Elena had no possession of any kind of property in the Bank of Louisiana as the title was never handed over to Lord from Medley. In this case, Lord was only acting as the trustee of the shares but the actual beneficiary was Elena. This case has given rise to a number of issues such as the Ã¢â¬Ëcreation of trustÃ¢â¬â¢ and the ex ception that the Ã¢â¬Ëequity will not assist a volunteer to perfect an imperfect giftÃ¢â¬â¢4. In a general sense, trust is a legally binding agreement in which an individual transfers the legal control of the property to another person, namely the trustee, to manage the property effectively for the sake of the beneficiary. A trust usually is levied during the lifetime of the individual
Saturday, February 1, 2020
Marketing Plan - Assignment Example Additionally, in terms of distribution strategy, it will be effectively necessary to engage with existing supply chains rather than utilize or create a dedicated LynLicious supply chain for the company. Once again, the underlying reason behind this has to do with the fact that the creation of dedicated supply chain and distribution strategy would create an unnecessary cost burden on the firm; especially in the opening stages of business development and growth. Within this dynamic, it is easy to understand why the firm would be fundamentally fearful of accruing an unmanageable level of cost with respect to a dedicated distribution network as opposed to seeking to contract existing distribution suppliers to fulfill the needs as they are exhibited by the market. Lynlicius will be competing with some of the most well represented and powerful shoe and fashion designers within the current market (Shi & Liu, 2012). For instance, New Balance, Esprit, ClarkÃ¢â¬â¢s, and a litany of others already compete within the market for fashionable shoes that exhibit at least some certain level of comfort. Naturally, comparing this to which competitor is able to maximize both of these goals, the reader can adequately understand that the competitors strengths and weaknesses very commensurately. For instance, ClarkÃ¢â¬â¢s focuses most heavily upon comfort with only a small level of focus on style; shifting or varying different product lines only minimally from season to season or year-to-year. By means of contrast, new balance is more of a workout and training fashion and shoe provider; one that does not necessarily place a high level of focus upon form and fashion with respect to the professional woman (He et al., 2014). Lastly, Esprit is perhaps the most relevant competition that exists within the market; due to the fact that the company places a high level of focus both upon form and fashion. However, the relatively low quality and high cost that this particular brand
Friday, January 24, 2020
As portrayed in the Bible, Adam and Eve were the perfect human species. This was only a result because of their complete innocence. God let them remain in his presence because of this reason. After the devil conned them into eating fruit from the Tree of Good and Evil they became unclean. In Herman MelvilleÃ¢â¬â¢s Billy Budd the question this apparent: Is innocence and ignorance dominant over knowledge and power? To emphasize the importance of this theme, Melville uses the character Billy Budd. Aboard the ship, the Rights-of-Man, Billy is a cynosure among his shipmates. He also becomes a leader by setting an example by his innocent ways. He is later transferred to the Indomitable. After waving goodbye to his shipmates, he salutes the ship saying "And good-by to you too, old Rights-of-Man" (11). Many witnessed this event to be ungrateful to the Indomitable and his role as a member of this ship. While aboard the Indomitable, Billy meets up with John Claggart, the master-at- arms. ClaggartÃ¢â¬â¢s personality coincides with that of BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s and with the help from Dansker, Billy soon realizes. Billy soon realizes that Claggart is out to get him after he talks to the Dansker. "The old manÃ¢â¬ ¦ rubbing the long slant scar at the point where it entered the thin hair, laconically said, Baby Budd, Jemmy Legs is down on you" (34). This surprised Billy, because the master-at-arms had been nothing but, what seemed to be, nice to him. Throughout the story, Billy witnesses incidents and threats made by Claggart on other members of the ship. This is just the start of tension between Claggart and Billy. "Starry" Vere, the captain of the ship, is a man who believes the military duty of oneÃ¢â¬â¢s life must rise above the moral values. And everything must be done in a procedure manner. This contrasted BillyÃ¢â¬â¢s way of life in which he remains pure and quiet about the mutiny aboard ship. After much turmoil, Claggart decides to approa ch Captain Vere about Billy, accusing him of conspiring to mutiny. Captain Vere is overwhelmed by this information and does not believe what he is hearing. However, to keep things fair and under control he schedules a conference between the three. After hearing the amazing propaganda that Claggart has presented, Billy becomes speechless and strikes Claggart in the head killing him instantly. Captain Vere tries to keep military law before morals and decides to hold a trial in which persuades the jury to sentence Billy to death.
Thursday, January 16, 2020
In 1984, about 200 insurance companies were in operation in Argentina. Although various legal restrictions have been placed on foreign insurance companies, many retain offices. The Superintendent of Insurance of the nation regulates the insurance market, which is a branch of the Ministry of Economy. The Argentine insurance market is characterized by a relatively large number of insurers with no single organization dominating the industry. From 1994 to 1997, there was a reduction in the number of insurers as some closed operations or were liquidated. Observers believe that there will be further reductions in the number of insurance companies as consolidation of the industry and the quest for economies of scale and critical mass continues. In Argentina, insurance companies are not allowed to raise their prices without notifying their customers and explain why the raise in prices took place, nor are they allowed to renew policies without prior notification of the changes in the policy. If an insurance company does not comply with this regulation, one can take legal action against them by contacting the National Supervisory of Insurances (Advameg Inc, 2007). This paper will address the significant development of the Argentine life market of insurance, especially under the stable current conditions. Insurance Landscape in Argentina Types of insurances Apart from the obligatory social insurance, there are also a number of possibilities for obtaining private insurance to cover other eventualities. The most common insurances include: Life Insurance The need for a life insurance depends on age, and dependents. Life insurance foresees in a payment to the beneficiaries of the deceased one. This payment can take place at once, or as a partial interest bearing payment. The names of the beneficiaries are stated in the insurance policy. Insurance companies calculate the costs of your policy based on three factors. The first one is the mortality table that classifies people into groups and their rate of mortality. The higher the risk of the mortality group you belong to, the higher your cost of policy. Next is the interest rate. Insurance companies invest their money in stocks, bonds etc. The higher the interest rate of the investments, the lower the cost of the insurance. Last factor of influence on the price are the operating costs of the insurance company. Life insurance are classified according to duration where distinction is made between temporary (term) insurance and life-long insurance. Temporary insurance only covers the insured person for a time-span specified in the policy. Life long insurance provides covers until death. Secondly is premium which bring in a distinction between Fixed Premiums and Risk Premiums. Fixed premiums mean that the same amount of premium is paid during the insurance. Risk premiums rise in premium as the age of the insured person goes up. Thirdly is the persons being covered by the insurance. Lastly is the flexibility of payment of premiums where a distinction is made between traditional life insurances and savings life insurance. The traditional insurance demands that premiums are paid at set dates. With savings insurances the date and amount of premium payment are more flexible. Take into account that price is not the only criteria when choosing a company. The reputation and service the insurance company offers should also be considered importantly. Furthermore, the company should be registered so that assistance can be given in disputes between the insurance company and clients. When buying a life insurance, one ought to answer all questions on the policy form correctly which mainly refer to health issues before signing and submitting the forms.Ã This is mainly because if later it turns out any questions where not answered truthfully, the insurance company can decide not to pay. Ã Further important points when buying a life insurance include the start and end of the policy, the benefits that might be paid out and those that can become less after a certain age is reached, Clauses regarding age and payments, and the time the company takes to start the running time of the insurance. Car Insurance By law it is mandatory to have car insurance in Argentina. Car insurance in Argentina covers the driver and/or insured person and third parties from damages suffered from fire, theft and accidents. Premiums paid are calculated based on the brand and model of car, usage of the car , geographic location, marital status, sex and age. The peson buying the cover must keep in mind the start and end of coverage, how old a car is, and the value of the parts to be insuredÃ especially if they are to be insured independently. Household Insurance The household insurance in Argentina covers the material as individuals in your household. Examples of what is covered by household insurance are damages due to fire, theft and burglary, water damages, civil responsibility, personal accidents, accidents of domestic employees. Wear and tear of property, damages due to war or natural disasters such as earthquakes and tornados is not covered. Choosing insurance Make sure before deciding with which company to buy an insurance, you know what the financial situation of the company is. Besides the price of the policy the service and reputation of the company should also be important factors to consider when deciding. If to buy directly with an insurance company or through an agent is also another factor. The Argentina Insurance Report provides independent forecasts and competitive intelligence on Argentines insurance industry. It includes BMIÃ¢â¬â¢s Insurance Business Environment Rating (IBER), which brings together a number of pieces of relevant quantitative data, together with BMIÃ¢â¬â¢s Country Risk Rating (CRR). It is now much easier to consider the business environment for the insurance sector in any one country relative to the business environment for other industries in that country that are surveyed by BMI, and the business environment for the insurance sector in other countries. ArgentinaÃ¢â¬â¢s IBER is a moderately attractive insurance market for foreign insurers. Within the region, the Bahamas has the highest IBER ranking, with a very high score in the risks to realization of potential returns. The competitive landscape, in both the non-life and the life segment, is fragmented. Both segments are open to participation by foreign groups. It is likely that the landscape will change dramatically in the next few years, possibly after considerable consolidation. This means that there is opportunity for cross-border operations that currently have a relatively small presence to become major players in the market. We do not however, expect any completely new market entrants. Although there a strong growth forecasts for Argentina, these are not at the moment translating into high growth rates for the insurance market. (BMI, 2008). The competitive landscape, in both the non-life and the life segment, is fragmented. Both segments are open to participation by foreign groups. It is likely that the landscape will change dramatically in the next few years, possibly after considerable consolidation. This means that there is opportunity for cross-border operations that currently have a relatively small presence to become major players in the market. ` However, completely new market entrants are expected. Economic and political reform if reinvigorated provides positive flow-on effects for the insurance market. Increased transparency has been campaigned on as an issue. However, it remains to be seen if it will be implemented. Although there is a strong growth in Argentina, this is not at the moment translating into high growth rates for the insurance market. (Braga, 1996). SWOT Analysis for Insurance in Argentina (Strength Weakness Opportunity Threats) SWOT Analysis is a strategic planning tool used to evaluate the Strengths, Weaknesses, Opportunities, and Threats involved in a project or in a business venture. It involves specifying the objective of the business venture or project and identifying the internal and external factors that are favorable and unfavorable to achieving that objective.The aim of any SWOT analysis is to identify the key internal and external factors that are important to achieving the objective. Internal factors are the strengths and weaknesses internal to the organization. External factors are the opportunities and threats presented by the external environment.The internal factors may be viewed as strengths or weaknesses depending upon their impact on the organizations objectives. What may represent strengths with respect to one objective may be weaknesses for another objective. The factors may include all key fields; as well as personnel, finance, manufacturing capabilities, and so on. The external factors may include macroeconomic matters, technological change, legislation, and socio-cultural changes, as well as changes in the marketplace or competitive position. The results are often presented in the form of a matrix. The aim of the insurance company ought to be maxinizing the strengths and opportunities and minimizing the weaknesses and threats. (Business help, 2008) Opportunities and threats Opportunities SWOT Analysis influences the Opportunities for the insurance businesses and these can be seen as targets to achieve and exploit in the future for example: Being in a good financial position creates a good reputation for future growth, Skilled and experienced workforce means that they can be moved and trained into other areas and locations of the business, competitor going bankrupt therefore creating a takeover opportunity, availability of broadband technology plus the installed in the area which is useful for Internet use, Increased spending power in the Local/National economy, and moving the insurance services into a new market sector . (Business help, 2008) Threats The final part of the analysis will also be seen as the most feared: the Threats. It has to be done and therefore taking into account the weaknesses, the threats seem too clear. For examples: Large and increasing competition from other insurance companies, Rising cost of Wages, Possible relocation costs, Local authority refusing plans for future building expansion, Increasing interest rates by lenders therefore increases borrowing repayments, and lastly existing covers becoming unfashionable or unpopular. (Business help, 2008) Opportunities for a US Insurance companies. As consolidation of the insurance industries and the quest for economies of scale and critical mass continues companies can still find their ways to certain regions as long as they meet the requirements and laws. (Wray, 2008). Need to Resort to International Law Accordingly, a body of international law, not dependent on the law or interpretation of any one country, has developed as the standard for expropriation claims against a host government. In turn, most political risk insurance policies over the years have required that for there to be an expropriation, the governmentÃ¢â¬â¢s actions must be in violation of this standard of international law. Application of the traditional standard to regulatory takings has proven to be difficult. Because of the Ã¢â¬Å"public purposeÃ¢â¬ test, normal regulations or change of law is not a wrongful action under international law and therefore is not an insurable event under political risk insurance expropriation Coverage. On the other hand, it is easy to imagine a host government attempting to cloak a wrongful expropriation with the appearance of legitimate regulatory action. (Wray, 2008). The credit derivative market: During the past ten years, credit derivatives have become a basic tool for risk management in the banking sector for both corporate credit and country risk management. Since the mid-1990s, banks have increasingly used credit protection to diversify and reduce corporate and emerging market exposure inherent in their lending activities. Insurance companies have also participated (mostly in the non-emerging market arena) both as providers of protection (to capture higher returns and better spreads), and as buyers of protection (to manage their exposure and diversify their portfolios). Insurance companies buy insurance to transfer resources from good times to bad times.Ã They do this by pooling risks, e.g., motor vehicle insurance. If population is large and individual risks are independent then aggregate loss is predictable. This enables simple strategies for setting premiums as a mark-up over the expected aggregate loss. Practical considerationsÃ include availability of data for insurance companies, which enables them to estimate the distribution of aggregate losses from their pool of risk. Low enough transactions costs (collecting data, writing policies, settling claims) are what are considered as policies, which make risks attractive. Catastrophe risks, e.g., floods, hurricanes, and earthquakes together with weather risks temperature and rainfall fluctuations are not attractive to many insurance companies. The Catastrophe risks are low-frequency high-severity risks unlike motor vehicle risks, which are high-frequency low-severity risks. Low frequency has probabilities of occurrence and damages are not precisely computed. There is need for a lot more data than when it is high frequency, Variance of loss is high, Premium setting is difficult, and Capital requirements to ensure solvency are large. Markets for Catastrophe Risk A large proportion is not insured or under-insured. Premiums can be high (as high as seven times the expected losses the actuarially fair level). Premiums can change drastically with an event suggesting that probabilities of extreme events is not well established and therefore revised with any new information.Ã Markets for catastrophe risk do not work very well. Conclusion Recent developments. Congressional legislation now allows insurance carriers and other financial institutions, such as banks and securities firms, to sell one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s products. More insurance carriers now sell financial products such as securities, mutual funds, and various retirement plans. This approach is most common in life insurance companies that already sold annuities, but property and casualty companies also are increasingly selling a wider range of financial products. In order to expand into one anotherÃ¢â¬â¢s markets, insurance carriers, banks, and securities firms have engaged in numerous mergers, allowing the merging companies access to each otherÃ¢â¬â¢s client base and geographical markets therefore Argentines can be covered by US insurance companies. This way many insurance companies are able to insure unattractive risks. Insurance carriers have discovered that the Internet can be a powerful tool for reaching potential and existing customers. Most carriers use the Internet simply to post company information, such as sales brochures and product information, financial statements, and a list of local agents. However, an increasing number of carriers are starting to expand their Web sites to enable customers to access online account and billing information, and some carriers even allow claims to be submitted online. Many carriers also provide insurance quotes online based on the information submitted by customers on their Internet sites. In fact, some carriers will allow customers to purchase policies through the Internet without ever speaking to a live agent. In addition to individual carrier-sponsored Internet sites, several Ã¢â¬Å"lead-generatingÃ¢â¬ sites have emerged. These sites allow potential customers to input information about their insurance policy needs. For a fee, the sites forward customer information to a number of insurance companies, which review the information and, if they decide to take on the policy, contact the customer with an offer. This practice gives consumers the freedom to accept the best rate. If this does not make the insurance landscape manageable then it is on the collapse. (Bureau of Labor Statistics, 2008). Work cited: Business Monitor International, (n.d.). Argentina insurance report. Accessed 16thMay 2008 from: http://www.businessmonitor.com/insurance/argentina.html Business Monitoring International (BMI), (2008, March). Argentina insurance report, pages: 31. Accessed 16thMay 2008 from: http://www.researchandmarkets.com/reports/c89667 Michael Braga, Tempa Bay business Journal, (1996, 21st June). Bankers insurance group on EEC Argentina. Accessed 16thMay 2008 from: http://www.bizjournals.com/tampabay/stories/1996/06/24/newscolumn1.html Business help, (2008). SWOT Analysis-Opportunities and threats Analysis. Accessed 16thMay 2008 from: http://www.bizhelp24.com/marketing/swot-analysisÃ¢â¬âopportunities-and-threats.html Robert Wray. (2008, April). Political risk Insurance Newsletter. Connecticut Avenue, nw suite 350, Washington dc, Volume 4, Issue 1 Advameg Inc, (2007). Argentina forum. Accessed 16thMay 2008 from: http://www.nationsencyclopedia.com/ Bureau of Labor Statistics, U.S. Department of Labor, Career Guide to Industries, 2008-09 Edition, Accessed 16thMay 2008 from: http://www.bls.gov/oco/cg/cgs028.htm
Wednesday, January 8, 2020
Sample details Pages: 3 Words: 1036 Downloads: 1 Date added: 2019/05/17 Category History Essay Level High school Tags: Civil War Essay War Essay Did you like this example? Whether you are one to believe that the Civil War started with the brush ups between Kansas and Missouri, or South Carolina seceding from the union of states, something we do know that started are the practices what we regard today as triage and ambulatory services, aseptic surgery, and postoperative wound care. Triage and Ambulatory Services The battle of Bull Run is recognized as the first official battle of the Civil War. Initially civilians or regiment members were assigned in getting the wounded off the field and to medical care. This did not go well. Ambulances were driven by civilians who fled when the first shots were fired. If they left the ambulances behind, healthy soldiers stole them to flee back to Washington, DC. Not a single wounded soldier returned to Washington, DC, in an ambulance (10). Tragically, wounded soldiers remained on the battlefield for days, the first two spent in the rain. Incredibly, Surgeon General Finley did not order medical supplies until after the battle was over. (Reilly, 2016) DonÃ¢â¬â¢t waste time! Our writers will create an original "Medical Advancements Caused By The Civil War" essay for you Create order The following year in July, Medical Director of the Army of the Potomac, Major Jonathan Letterman in just six weeks, before the battle of Antietam, revolutionized the Army Medical Corp. The three-tiered system he began is still very similar to how we treat emergency patients today. First, surgeons near the front made the initial assessment and treatment, including tourniquets, morphine, and water or whiskey. Then, it was decided who could be saved, and who had fatal injuries; finally, ambulances at collection points transported the wounded to field hospitals in nearby buildings, and those with more severe injuries to general hospitals. (Liebig, Tremblay, Soballe, Ignacio, 2016) There were 71 Union field hospitals at the time of Antietam, by the end of the war about 400. Standards of care were elevated, and training was becoming standardized. It was far from aseptic, but it was better than the Bull Run. Aseptic Surgery and Postoperative Wound Care Before we get too far into surgery, it must be mentioned that hygiene in army camps was atrocious. Major Letterman had also implemented standards of hygiene and health that drastically cut sicknesses and disease throughout the Army. The use of chloroform as an anesthetic had been around since the 1840s, this gave a surgeon the time he needed to his work. Prewar there were 113 doctors in the army. At the start of the war, 24 went south and 3 had defected. At the end of the war, there were over 12,000 doctors in the Union Army and over 3000 in the Confederate Army. Before the war, the largest military hospital was at Fort Leavenworth, with 40 beds. The only hospital in Washington, DC, before the war was a two-story six-room building used to isolate smallpox patients. (Reilly, 2016) Three of four surgeries were amputations. Each amputation took around 5 minutes. Chloroform was administered, the surgeon would take his scalpel and make an incision through the muscle and skin down to the bone. He would make incisions both above and below, leaving a flap of skin on one side. Taking his bone saw, he would saw through the bone until it was severed. He would then toss it into the growing pile of limbs. The operator would then tie off the arteries with either horsehair, silk, or cotton threads. The surgeon would scrape the end and edges of the bone smooth, so that they would not work back through the skin. The flap of skin left by the surgeon would be pulled across and sewed close, leaving a drainage hole. The stump would be covered perhaps with isinglass plaster and bandaged. Infections were rampant in dirty field hospital tents. ((Goellnitz)emphasis added) During the war documentation was difficult and knowledge spread slowly. When word spread of Major Lettermans advancements in regimental health other practices were experimented and allowed. Prewar amputation mortality was above 60%, sometimes into the 70%s. By the end it was down to about 25%. Dirty tents, too close to the front lines, dirty doctors, dirty instruments and sponges were exchanged for field hospitals in homes or barns out of firing range with controlled traffic, tools were washed, new sponges/rags or used ones, at least, laundered clean, all pioneered at the time. Surgery done within 24 hours of injury proved better mortality than waiting days, from any doctor amputating to becoming a specialty where only 1 in 15 physicians were authorized to amputate. Experiments in bandage changing, soaking them in bromine, mixing plasters and poultices for infection control and patient isolation became normal practice after the lessons learned in battlefield medicine. Unfortunately, it wasnt until Listers paper on antiseptic principles in 1867 that many of these practices were standardized. Each one of these subjects can be a paper unto its own. When tied together one can see a bigger picture, that even in the bedlam of war and misery, great things can be accomplished. Other notable advancements caused by Civil War surgery are; safe use of anesthetics, the beginnings of neurosurgery, development of arterial ligation, and plastic surgery. It was said War is the only proper school for the surgeon. Thankfully because of the horrors of the Civil War we ended up with thousands of trained doctors attending at hundreds of hospitals and surgical practices that often surpassed Europe in reduced mortality rates and postoperative infection. We stand upon the shoulders of men and women that gave their lives and bodies to the practice of medicine in those years. Let us honor them by continuing good surgical conscience and aseptic principles. References Goellnitz, J. (n.d.). eHistory. Retrieved from Ohio State University: https://ehistory.osu.edu/exhibitions/cwsurgeon/cwsurgeon/amputations Grabowski, Amelia. (n.d.). National Museum of Civil War Medicine. Retrieved from Quick Facts: https://www.civilwarmed.org/quick-facts/letterman/ Liebig, J., Tremblay, L., Soballe, P., Ignacio, R. (2016). Major Jonathan Letterman: Unsung war hero and father of modern battlefield medicine. American College of Surgeons, 21-25. Retrieved from https://www.facs.org/~/media/files/archives/shg%20poster/2016/04_letterman.ashx Reilly, R. (2016, April). Medical and surgical care during the American Civil War, 1861-1865. Proceedings (Baylor University. Medical Center), 138-42. Retrieved from https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4790547/ Rowe, C. (2015, January 9). Five Medical Innovations of the Cival War. Retrieved 11 20, 2018, from Mental Floss: https://mentalfloss.com/article/31326/5-medical-innovations-civil-war